Platform Analysis: Climate Change
Gen Squeeze's analysis of the 2019 federal election climate change platforms
This analysis is current as of October 21, 2019. You can find the complete Voter's Guide (covering housing, family, climate and public finance here

 

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👆 These summary scores are produced from an analysis of 24 separate criteria, as described below. 

Table of Contents

Introduction


This election, Generation Squeeze is undertaking a rigorous assessment of federal party platforms and commitments on four key issues: housing affordability, climate change, family affordability, and generational fairness in public finance.

Our mission: to help voters better understand how far each party's platform goes towards actually solving big problems facing young people today.

Instead of simply listing party promises, our assessment attempts to make meaning of those promises, individually and in aggregate, by:

  • Publishing a comprehensive, evidence-based policy framework for addressing each issue, beginning with a clearly stated goal

  • Translating each framework into a set of key criteria

  • Assessing the degree to which each major party’s platform addresses the key criteria. The resulting analysis includes:

    • Criteria table and scoreswhere party platforms and commitments are given a score based on the extent to which they meet the stated criteria
    • Detailed commentary that explains how a score was assigned, as well as the assessed strengths and weaknesses of each commitment.

For the 2019 federal election, Gen Squeeze is focusing our analysis on the four major parties who began the race with at least one MP who was elected as a representative of that party, and who are running a national slate of candidates. This includes the Conservative Party, the Green Party, the Liberal Party, and the New Democratic Party. 

Gen Squeeze does not aim to tell you who to vote for, or to portray any party in an inherently favourable or unfavourable light.

Read more about our detailed methodology here.

Climate Change Policy Framework


The following climate change policy framework begins by adopting the most ambitious goal of the 2015 Paris Agreement (to limit climate change to 1.5°) and combines it with a simultaneous goal to increase the wellbeing of all Canadians through the transition to a clean economy. 
The framework then aggregates and adds to existing policy frameworks including the Pan Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project, the Generation Energy framework, the Re-energizing Canada pathways, the recommendations of the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance, and the recommendations of the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience. Read more about our framework design here.

Gen Squeeze Climate Framework:

Oct-8_Climate_Gameplan.png


Scores

We've translated our climate change policy framework into 24 key criteria of a strong national climate plan, and we assign parties up to one point for their platform's response to each, as outlined in the following table. The full scoring methodology is described below. 

Note for mobile/smartphone device users: The table below may not display properly on your smartphone screen. If the table appears to be cut-off, please return to this page on a desktop/laptop computer. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Criteria used to assess party platforms Party scores
  CPC GP LPC NDP
CLEAR GOALS AND PRINCIPLES        

Commits to a clear goal of holding climate change to 1.5 degrees, and commits to specific emissions reduction targets in line with that goal, e.g. as published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: (a) at least a 60% reduction in emissions below 2005 levels by 2030 and (b) net zero emissions by 2050.
-0.5  1 0.5   0.5
Demonstrates a commitment to the principle of “All Hands on Deck” including commitments to (a) share responsibility between all levels of society - from industry to households - and (b) ensure positive collaboration between all levels of government, nationally and internationally -0.5 1 1 1
Demonstrates a commitment to the principle of “No One Left Behind” including commitments to (a) ensure that regions most impacted by a transition receive extra support, (b) ensure that individual workers most impacted by a transition receive extra support, (c) the benefits of a clean energy transition are equitably spread, and (d) ensure that reconciliation between Canada and indigenous people and nations is advanced through the transition to a clean economy 0 1 1 1
 

 

 

 

 

MOBILIZE THE MARKET — SEND THE RIGHT SIGNALS

 

 

 

 

Action to lower income taxes specifically by using revenue from paired pollution taxes (see next criteria); lower income taxes can be accomplished by way of a tax cut, a tax rebate, a dividend or similar mechanism. The point here is to send a paired signal to the market that together incentivizes labour and work (this criteria) and disincentivizes pollution (the next criteria). 

-1

1

1

1

Action to increase pollution taxes to a level that - in combination with other policy measures - is capable of helping Canada do its part towards limiting climate change to 1.5 degrees. This almost certainly means continuing to increase carbon taxes beyond 2022, and in a way that specifically directs revenue back to Canadians (see previous criteria); the pollution tax can take the form of a direct carbon price, cap and trade or some combination. The point here is to send a paired signal to the market that together incentivizes labour and work (the previous criteria) and sufficiently disincentivizes pollution (this criteria).

-0.5

1

0.5

0.5

Action to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies (negative carbon pricing) which can take a number of forms including those that are clearly listed as line item expenditures in government budgets, as well as less obvious market interventions.  

+0.5

-1.0

-0.5 

+1.0

-0.5

0.5

+0.5

-0.5

0

+1.0

-0.5

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

MOBILIZE THE MARKET — RAISE $ ➡️ MAKE $

 

 

 

 

Action to get investors excited, including by (a) mapping Canada’s long-term path to a low-emissions, climate-smart economy, sector by sector, with an associated capital plan, (b) provide individual Canadians incentives to connect their savings to climate objectives, (c) establish a standing Canadian Sustainable Finance Action Council (SFAC), with a cross-departmental secretariat, to advise and assist the federal government in implementing the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance’s recommendations.

 0

0.5

0.5

0.5

Action to bake sustainability into financial system, including by (a) establishing the Canadian Centre for Climate Information and Analytics (C3IA) as an authoritative source of climate information and decision analysis, (b) defining and pursuing a Canadian approach to implementing the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), (c) clarifying the scope of fiduciary duty in the context of climate change, (d) promoting a knowledgeable financial support ecosystem, and (e) embedding climate-related risk into monitoring, regulation and supervision of Canada’s financial system.

 0

0

0.5

0.5

Action to give all Canadians options to invest, including by (a) expanding Canada’s green fixed income market (b) promoting sustainable investment as ‘business as usual’ within Canada’s asset management community 

 0.5

0

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

PUT CANADIANS AT THE FOREFRONT* - HELP CANADIAN BUSINESSES

*These categories will share some policy overlap with the “Upgrade our Lives” sectors, but here the emphasis is on action to help specific actors (businesses, workers and communities) deploy and become leaders in the upgrades contemplated in those sectors

 

 

 

 

Action to support massive adoption of existing technology by private businesses, including any action that reduces cost or other barriers to the internal deployment of clean technology, with a particular emphasis on non-industrial businesses (industrial businesses are covered elsewhere in this framework)

0

0.5

0

Action to support R&D and export of Canadian technology and expertise, including the early-stage innovation,development, commercialization, and export of Canadian clean economy solutions, both goods and services

0.5

0.5

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

PUT CANADIANS AT THE FOREFRONT - HELP CANADIAN WORKERS

 

 

 

 

Action to create a clean economy education and skills strategy, including an overarching transition workforce needs study, retraining/skills upgrades for existing industrial workers, an education and training strategy to foster a steady stream of new workers from Canada, and skilled labour immigration strategies

1

1

1

Action to push the hiring of Canadian talent first for good-paying clean economy jobs, leveraging the new supply of skilled workers with procurement and training requirements for public works, and requirements and/or incentives for private works

0.5

0

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

PUT CANADIANS AT THE FOREFRONT - HELP CANADIAN COMMUNITIES

 

 

 

 

Action to help towns and cities make transition plans, which here refers to all manner of sustainable planning exercises to help combat sprawl, transition energy, transportation, and building systems to zero-emission, and the development of local economic diversification plans (adaptation and forest planning support are captured in other criteria).

 0

0.5

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

UPGRADE OUR LIVES

 

 

 

 

Action to advance 100% clean power, which here specifically refers to 100% clean electricity generation (not including nuclear because not renewable). The actual electrification of fossil fuel-powered systems is captured in other criteria

 0

1

1

0.5

Action to advance clean industry, including the clean electrification of industrial energy/power systems, the capture of industrial non-energy emissions such as methane leakage from oil & gas, and the transition away from oil and non-renewable gas production entirely: in line with [hopefully] aggressive reductions in domestic and global demand

 0

0.5

1

0.5

Action to advance clean transportation, including the electrification of transportation (whether by battery or hydrogen storage; not including synthetic fuels here), and the expansion of both active transportation and public transportation infrastructure

 -0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Action to advance zero-emission homes and buildings, emphasizing the electrification of heating systems and energy efficiency, with a nod to the limited capacity of renewable natural gas to play a niche role

 -0.5

0.5

1

0.5

Action to advance smart land use and zero waste, including landfill gas capture, regional forest/agricultural/ecosystem carbon emissions and sequestration, and action to combat urban sprawl (this last element currently overlaps somewhat with the “Help towns and cities make transition plans” criteria)

 0

1

1

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

WEATHER THE STORM

 

 

 

 

Action to reduce hazards and disaster risks, including from rapid-onset climate-related events (e.g. floods, wildfires and other events), aligning action with the four components of emergency management: prevention, preparedness, response and recovery (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)

 0.5

1

1

1

Action to protect health and wellbeing, by focusing on the key determinants of health as they relate to climate change impacts and by increasing the resilience of people, communities, and health practitioners to a broad range of health impacts associated with climate change (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)

0

0.5

0

Action to build resilient infrastructure, including Canada’s traditional, cultural, and natural infrastructure, new and existing infrastructure, critical and non-critical infrastructure, and the interdependencies of our infrastructure systems (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)

0.5 

1

1

1

Action to support vulnerable regions and people, with (a) a special emphasis on Canada’s northern, coastal, and remote regions and the particular vulnerability of these regions to slow onset climate change impacts e.g. permafrost thaw and coastal erosion (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience) and (b) individual households who may be particularly exposed to disasters and/or slow onset impacts. 

 0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Action to mobilize knowledge, including the respectful consideration and use of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and science to co-develop information related to climate change impacts, building the capacity of Canadians to act on this information, and mobilizing action on adaptation (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)

0.5

0.5

0

         
TOTAL SCORE (out of a possible 24) -1  15   15  12.5
Weighted to a total score out of 10 (to more easily compare to other issue areas)
 -0.4 6.3 6.3 5.2



Scoring Methodology 


For each key criteria, parties receive a score that ranges from +1.0 to -1.0, assessed as follows:

Assessment Points
No discernible commitments 0
Commitments are somewhat capable of achieving the goal 0.5
Commitments are capable of achieving the goal 1.0
Commitments somewhat undermine progress towards the goal -0.5
Commitments undermine progress towards the goal -1.0


This five-point method was chosen because (a) it’s relatively simple, (b) it's capable of distinguishing between narrow/shallow responses and comprehensive responses to each criteria, especially the criteria that relate to broad policy categories, and (c) it allows us to subtract points where the evidence suggests a particular policy or group of policies put forward by a party is likely to exacerbate the problem/take us further away from the goal.

You can learn more by reading our detailed methodology.

Detailed Commentary 

Here's a more comprehensive explanation of why Gen Squeeze assigned the scores we did, and the strengths and weaknesses of individual policy proposals.

For each section, we begin our commentary with a summary overview, proceed to a breakdown of our score assessment and rationale, and conclude by listing the relevant promises for each party for the 21 criteria that relate to specific categories of policy. Note that this is a somewhat different format than we take with our detailed housing, family and intergenerational budgeting commentaries; a difference that simply reflects the style of our analyst on this topic.

Criteria 1: Do the platforms commit to a clear goal of holding climate change to 1.5 degrees?


This includes committing to specific emissions reduction targets in line with that goal, e.g. as published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: (a) at least a 60% reduction in emissions below 2005 levels by 2030 and (b) net zero emissions by 2050.


Summary

All party platforms except the Conservative Party commit to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below Canada’s 2030 target while pushing to net zero by 2050. The proposed pace of GHGs reduction is clearly the fastest under the Green Party plan and is most consistent with a 1.5dC GHG pathway. All three parties except the Conservative Party also commit to accountability measures to ensure Canada is on track to meet its long-term GHG reduction commitments. The Conservative Party platform does not commit to a specific target in 2030 but subsequent clarification has committed to achieving Canada’s 2030 target. There is no evidence the Conservative Party has committed to net zero GHGs consistent with a GHG pathway to support the attainment of 1.5 degrees.

Scoring

Conservative Party: -0.5. There is a commitment to achieve Canada's current 2030 target but not the deep decarbonization targets that would be consistent with a 1.5 degrees GHG pathway (i.e. a more ambitious 2030 target and net zero by 2050). Furthermore, the platform's response to this criteria must be interpreted in light of the fact that the policy package presented is likely to increase emissions by 2030, undermining progress towards the stated goal. Thus, a half point is deducted.  

Green Party: 1. The platform represents a strong commitment to get on a path to mid-century decarbonization consistent with 1.5°C. A full point is awarded given the pre-2030 GHG pathway seeks accelerated GHG reductions of 60% below 2005 levels, and because the party commits to net zero by 2050.

Liberal Party: 0.5. There is a commitment to meet and exceed the 2030 target and become net zero by 2050 consistent with 1.5°C. A full point is not awarded given the pre-2030 reduction pathway is not accelerated/the 2030 target itself is not sufficiently clear, and is therefore less consistent with a 1.5°C pathway.

NDP: 0.5. The NDP commits to exceeding the 2030 target and achieving deep decarbonization by mid-century. A full point is not awarded given the pre-2030 reduction pathway is not accelerated/the 2030 target itself is not sufficiently clear, and is therefore less consistent with a 1.5°C pathway.



Criteria 2: Do the platforms demonstrate a commitment to the principle of “All Hands on Deck”?

 

By including commitments to (a) share responsibility between all levels of society - from industry to households - and (b) ensure positive collaboration between all levels of government, nationally and internationally 


Summary

The emission reducing policy packages contained in all the platforms except the Conservative Party include broad-based carbon pricing, targeted regulations and incentives. These policy packages reach into many corners of Canada’s emission inventory, incenting reductions from a broad spectrum of fossil fuel using end uses. Our expectation is that such policy packages would be effective in ensuring “shared responsibility” to contribute to emission reductions. 

The Conservative Party’s narrow policy package focuses on buildings and supporting cleantech innovation, while eliminating broad-based policies such as the federal carbon tax and the Clean Fuel Standard. Removing these broad-based policies would limit the policy signal to reduce GHGs in many areas of Canada’s emission inventory including buildings, vehicles and businesses. There is a commitment to use the Paris Agreement to try to benefit Canadian companies to gain emission reductions abroad.  

While all the party platforms commit to increasing funding for transit, efforts to work with local governments beyond the transit measures are limited across the platforms. A focus on helping communities plan the transition to clean economies and systems and to adapt to dangerous climate change is a weakness in all the party platforms.

Another noticeable weakness in all platforms is a commitment to work internationally to collaborate on reducing GHGs. Simply stating a commitment to the Paris Agreement reduction pathway of 1.5° C seems insufficient given the scale of the global challenge. 

Scoring

Conservative Party: -0.5. The platform places a narrow focus on achieving GHG reductions from residential buildings and from research and development. Such a narrow focus is not consistent with “all hands on deck”. Revoking the carbon price on households and businesses that are not large industrial emitters would exclude an important source of emission reductions. There is a nod to working internationally but little mention of working with the provinces and municipalities. A half point is deducted given the policy package moves in the opposite direction on this principle.   

Green Party: 1. Their broad-based policy package to mitigate GHGs would incent all levels of society to reduce their emissions. There are proposals to work more collaboratively across party lines, and to work globally to help reduce emissions in areas like aviation. Their platform states that every level of government must accept that climate is not just an environmental issue. As such, a full point is awarded (noting the areas of weakness shared by all parties identified in the summary).

Liberal Party: 1. The Liberal Party platform continues with a comprehensive policy package already being implemented and designed to deliver emission reductions at all levels of society. There is some limited mention of working internationally and numerous references at working with households, business and government. As such, a full point is awarded (noting the areas of weakness shared by all parties identified in the summary).

NDP: 1. The platform proposes a comprehensive package of policies including carbon pricing, some regulations, and incentives. The platform indicates that reductions would be sought from a broad spectrum of Canadian society and business. As such, a full point is awarded (noting the areas of weakness shared by all parties identified in the summary). The NDP platform also places a heavier emphasis on gaining more GHGs reductions from transportation and large industrial facilities.  

Criteria 3: Do the platforms demonstrate a commitment to the principle of “No One Left Behind”?

 

By including commitments to (a) ensure that regions most impacted by a transition receive extra support, (b) ensure that individual workers most impacted by a transition receive extra support, (c) the benefits of a clean energy transition are equitably spread, and (d) ensure that reconciliation between Canada and indigenous people and nations is advanced through the transition to a clean economy


Summary

All the parties except the Conservative Party have strong proposals for workers who have been and may be adversely impacted by the transition away from fossil fuel use. As well, the Liberal Party, NDP and Green Party parties all commit to addressing the skills gap likely to emerge during the transition to a low carbon economy. 

Most parties also commit to partnering with Indigenous Peoples to transition communities away from using diesel fuel power. The NDP platform seems to have the strongest language with respect to working in partnership with Indigenous Peoples specifically on the low carbon transition. 

Support for community level capacity to plan for reducing GHGs is patchy across all the platforms and is a common deficiency.  A glaring error seems to be a light touch on adaptation planning and broad support for preventing the future impacts of a changing climate. All the platforms do include measures to adapt to a changing climate, but the focus is often on addressing damages after they have occurred and less on building resilience. The adaptation measures in all the proposals are less well articulated and developed when compared with proposals to reduce GHGs. 

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. There is no mention of policies to help with the transition of workers impacted by a reduction in fossil fuel use. Skills training with respect to the low carbon transition is also not mentioned. A large adaptation fund is proposed but specifics are not provided. There is no mention of including Indigenous Peoples.

Green Party: 1. Embeds the principles of a just transition into policy and planning. Commits to skills training and supporting local capacity especially in the forestry sector. Commits to supporting some local capacity development to help plan the transition to a low carbon future while reducing the adverse impacts of climate change. A full point is awarded. 

Liberal Party: 1. The platform makes a major accountability pledge in the form of the Just Transition Act. Skills training programs are also identified. There is some mention of the inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in the low carbon transition, with a focus primarily on reducing GHGs associated with fossil fuel use in remote and northern communities. Adaptation proposals are more concrete relative to the other party platforms. A full point is awarded.  

NDP: 1. The platform specifically identifies a few targeted measures to help with transitioning workers and improving skills. Inclusion of Indigenous Peoples into decision-making processes is explicit as is helping to reduce diesel fuel use for electricity in northern and remote communities. There is limited reference to helping communities to adapt to the adverse impacts of a changing climate. A full point is awarded.

 

Criteria 4: Do the platforms include action to lower income taxes?

 

Specifically by using revenue from paired pollution taxes (see next criteria); lower income taxes can be accomplished by way of a tax cut, a tax rebate, a dividend or similar mechanism. The point here is to send a paired signal to the market that together incentivizes labour and work (this criteria) and disincentivizes pollution (the next criteria). 


Summary

All parties except the Conservative Party are committed to recycling revenue from a carbon tax back to households. Therefore, full points are awarded for all but the Conservative Party. 

As a related aside, however, we note that all parties have significant subsidy programs that must be paid for with present and/or future tax revenue. About 50% of federal revenue is paid for by households, which would mean all households would contribute to the subsidies but only some would simultaneously benefit from those same subsidies from a cost of living perspective. Plans by the Green Party and NDP to disrupt fossil fuel production and supply would also likely result in significant increases in household energy costs, costs which would not be immediately and broadly offset as is the case with the federal carbon tax. 

Scoring

  1. Conservative Party. -1. Removing the carbon tax would leave many households worse off given that the current carbon rebate system is overcompensating many households. 
  2. Green Party. 1. Recycling dividends to households is made explicit. 
  3. Liberal Party. 1. The continuation of the current revenue recycling program under the Climate Action Incentive would continue to benefit most households.
  4. NDP. 1. The platform commits to continuing the carbon tax and rebate system. Removing the federal output-based pricing system would raise more revenue that would increase the current rebate to households.

 

Policies

Green Party

Liberal Party

NDP

  • Continue carbon pricing, including rebates to households that fall under the federal backstop plan, while making it fairer and rolling back the breaks this Liberal government has given to big polluters (p. 47). 

Conservative Party  

  • Removal of carbon dividend.

 

Criteria 5: Do the platforms include action to increase pollution taxes?

 

To a level that - in combination with other policy measures - is capable of helping Canada do its part towards limiting climate change to 1.5 degrees. This almost certainly means continuing to increase carbon taxes beyond 2022, and in a way that specifically directs revenue back to Canadians (see previous criteria); the pollution tax can take the form of a direct carbon price, cap and trade or some combination. The point here is to send a paired signal to the market that together incentivizes labour and work (the previous criteria) and sufficiently disincentivizes pollution (this criteria).


Summary

All parties except the Conservative Party are committed to continuing the current carbon pricing system within the country. The NDP would not increase the carbon tax; however, their proposed change to the output-based pricing system for large industrial emitters would effectively increase the level of the tax for a large share of Canada’s GHGs. The Green Party are committed to increasing the carbon tax through 2030 and likely beyond. The Liberal Party have committed to consult on increasing the level of the carbon tax rate after 2022. The Conservative Party will remove the policy on households and most businesses but keep it for the large industrial emitters.

Scoring

Conservative Party. -0.5. Remove the carbon tax on household and most businesses but retains the carbon tax on the large industrial emitters. A full negative point is not awarded given the commitment to keep the carbon price on large industrial emitters. 

Green Party. 1. Continues the carbon price as currently implemented but commits to a rising price schedule to 2030. A full point is therefore awarded.  

Liberal Party. 0.5. Commits to the current carbon pricing system for households, businesses and large emitters with a promise to revisit the tax rate after 2022. The current rate is rising to 2022 but then is frozen subject to consultation.  A full point is not awarded given the lack of commitment to a longer-term price signal.    

NDP. 0.5. Does not commit to a carbon tax increase beyond the current federal schedule but expands coverage of the carbon price to Canada’s trade exposed and emission intensive industry (cement, steel, chemicals, etc.).  A full point is not awarded given the lack of commitment to a longer-term price signal. 
 

Policies

NDP

  • Would not increase the carbon tax. Builds on the climate actions taken by the previous two governments (Liberal and Conservative), notably committing to maintain and increase the existing carbon pricing system, including rebates to households in jurisdictions where the federal backstop is in place (P.  9).
  • Continue carbon price, roll back average output-based pricing program for large emitters. (P.  9).
  • Continue carbon pricing, including rebates to households that fall under the federal backstop plan, while making it fairer and rolling back the breaks this Liberal government has given to big polluters (.47).

Liberal Party

  • Carbon price continued, but to be revised after 2023 in consultation with the provinces.  

Conservative Party

Green Party

 

Criteria 6: Do the platforms include action to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies?

 

A.k.a. negative carbon pricing; subsidies can take a number of forms including those that are clearly listed as line item expenditures in government budgets, as well as less obvious market interventions.


Summary

Both the NDP and the Green Party have committed to cutting current federal fossil fuel subsidies, including canceling the Trans Mountain pipeline. However, both the NDP and the Green Party advocate increasing domestic oil and gas production to curtail imports (Green Party) or ban exports (NDP).  Such efforts the restrict trade or limit market access would effectively be a subsidy to the oil and gas sector in the form of preferential treatment just as purchasing the Trans Mountain pipeline is preferential treatment. Quantifying the size of the subsidy could be conducted using the “price-gap” approach where the average end-user prices paid by consumers, which would be rise with restricted trade, are compared with reference prices that correspond to the full cost of supply.  The Conservative Party has confirmed that they would consider cutting fossil fuel subsidies as part of a broader review of all business subsidy programs with a goal of “eliminating those with no benefit to Canadians,” though it’s unclear how the Conservative Party would define “benefit.” The Conservative Party also support the development of an energy corridor.  The corridor would be very costly to construct however, and constitute a subsidy to the oil and gas sector.  There is no mention of fossil fuel subsidies in the Liberal platform but support for the Trans Mountain pipeline is a fossil fuel subsidy. 

Scoring

Conservative Party. -0.5. In response to media questions, Conservative Party leader Andrew Scheer said that fossil fuel subsidies could be reduced under a Conservative Party government following their proposed broader review of business subsidies, but this openness does not constitute a clear enough commitment to assign partial or full points on this criteria. The topic receives no mention in the party's full platform. The proposed energy corridor (Ibid. p. 23), however, would be a subsidy to production. We therefore deduct half a point for this criteria.

Green Party. 0.5. All fossil fuel subsidies would be immediately canceled, earning the party a full point. However, the Green Party has also promised to "Turn off the tap to oil imports" (Mission Possible action item # 13), which would be a massive subsidy to domestic oil and gas. We received a request to treat their full platform as the primary reference document for this analysis, and that document does not refer to the "Turn off the taps" ban on all oil imports (it only refers to banning Saudi oil imports). However, without an explicit and public retraction of the earlier promise, which is still published on their website and being cited by media, we cannot wholly ignore it for the purpose of this analysis. As such, we deduct 0.5 points for the subsidization impact of the public "turn off the taps" trade restriction promise.

Liberal Party. 0. There is no mention of fossil fuel subsidies in the Liberal platform but in the lead up to the election they outlined progress to date and committed to further consultation and progress. The Office of the Auditor General has critiqued the combined approaches of Environment and Climate Change Canada and the Department of Finance on this topic, critiques that largely aim at the vague qualification to eliminate only "inefficient" fossil fuel subsidies, without sufficient clarity about what that should mean and encompass. We acknowledge that both entities have responded to those critiques, that the "inefficient" qualifier does come from international frameworks, and that Canada is currently working domestically and internationally to advance clarity and best practices around this. However, altogether, progress and commitments by the Liberal party to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies remain slow, vague and incomplete. Thus, we assign a half point. We then deduct a half point for the purchase of the Trans Mountain pipeline, which is a clear and unambiguous subsidy to the fossil fuel industry. 

NDP. 0.5. All fossil fuel subsidies would be immediately canceled, earning the party a full point. However, the party's platform and public statements also include language about prioritizing domestic upgrading and refining, which would likely result in the subsidization of domestic producers. A half point is deducted for this contradiction, leaving the party with an overall score of 0.5. 

Policies

NDP

  • Eliminate fossil fuel subsidies immediately.
  • Cancelling the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion if elected.
  • “Where oil and gas will continue to form a part of Canada’s energy mix in the immediate future, we will continue to prioritize domestic upgrading and refining instead of shipping our raw resources and jobs to other countries” (Action Plan. p. 11).

Green Party 

  • Cut subsidies to all oil and gas, including pipelines and fracking.   
  • “Prioritizes Canadian jobs and supply” (p. 42). 
  • “As fossil fuel use declines, use only Canadian fossil fuels and allow investment in upgraders to turn Canadian solid bitumen into gas, diesel, propane and other products for the Canadian market, providing jobs in Alberta (Mission Possible p. 4). 

Conservative Party

  • Andrew Scheer confirmed that fossil fuel subsidies could be cut.
  • Support for an energy corridor would constitute a fossil fuel subsidy.  

Liberal Party

  • No mention of fossil fuel subsidies in the platform.  
  • Trans mountain pipeline purchased. 

 

Criteria 7: Do the platforms include action to get investors excited?

 

Including by (a) mapping Canada’s long-term path to a low-emissions, climate-smart economy, sector by sector, with an associated capital plan, (b) provide individual Canadians incentives to connect their savings to climate objectives, (c) establish a standing Canadian Sustainable Finance Action Council (SFAC), with a cross-departmental secretariat, to advise and assist the federal government in implementing the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance’s recommendations.


Summary

All parties except the Conservative Party include some sort of sustainable investment incentives in their platforms. The Liberal Party provides specific and targeted tax reductions for both the development and manufacture of zero emission technologies and a broad class of potential emission reducing technologies. The Liberal Party also propose competitive financing to help incent private capital to retrofit large commercial buildings. The Green Party mentions it will shift and expand taxation to finance a national grid and other low carbon infrastructure investments. The NDP would overhaul Export Development Canada’s mandate to ensure it focuses on sustainable energy projects.

Scoring

Conservative Party. 0. No clear guidance is provided on sustainable investment opportunities nor for providing sustainable investment incentives. No points are therefore awarded. 

Green Party. 0.5. Some specific investment opportunities are identified but there is generally no clear guidance or specificity on how sustainable investment incentives will be provided. A full point is not awarded given the limited and vague commitments. The tax incentive is good but a full point is not awarded given a lack of additional policies that clearly respond to the stated elements of this criteria, which reflect the recommendations of the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance.  

Liberal Party. 0.5. The Liberal Party have specific proposals to provide for sustainable investment incentives as well as the general mapping of investment opportunities that will be prioritized. A full point is not awarded given a lack of additional policies that clearly respond to the stated elements of this criteria, which reflect the recommendations of the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance.  

NDP. 0.5. Specific reference to using the Export Development Canada to help incent sustainable investment. A full point is not awarded given a lack of additional policies that clearly respond to the stated elements of this criteria, which reflect the recommendations of the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance.  

Policies

Liberal Party

  • Cut in half the corporate tax paid by companies that develop and manufacture zero-emissions technologies. Eligible sectors could include, but aren’t limited to:
    • Manufacturing related to renewable energy (e.g. wind, solar, geothermal systems, biomass, marine, hydrogen fuel cells) 
    • Production of renewable fuels (biofuels, hydrogen, biogas, fuels from carbon capture and use technologies) 
    • Zero emission vehicles 
    • Carbon sequestration and removal technology 
    • Batteries for use in zero emission vehicles and grid storage 
    • Electric vehicle charging systems.
  • National competition to create four $100-million long-term funds to help attract private capital that can be used for deep retrofits of large buildings, such as office towers (p. 33). 

Green Party

  • Shift and expand taxation to priority areas including national grid and infrastructure. 

NDP

  • Will overhaul Export Development Canada’s mandate to further support Canada’s sustainable energy projects and remove its support for the petroleum industry. (p.  17)

 

Criteria 8: Do the platforms include action to bake sustainability into financial system?

 

Including by (a) establishing the Canadian Centre for Climate Information and Analytics (C3IA) as an authoritative source of climate information and decision analysis, (b) defining and pursuing a Canadian approach to implementing the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), (c) clarifying the scope of fiduciary duty in the context of climate change, (d) promoting a knowledgeable financial support ecosystem, and (e) embedding climate-related risk into monitoring, regulation and supervision of Canada’s financial system.


Summary

The NDP proposal for a Climate Bank could be thought of as somewhat, indirectly responsive to some of the elements of this criteria, which reflect the recommendations of the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance. Green Party proposals are not clearly linked to baking sustainability into the financial system. Evidence is missing from the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party on this criterion. The lack of specific proposals on sustainable finance across the platforms is puzzling given the rising importance of the issue within the banking and investment communities.  

Scoring

Conservative Party. 0. There is no mention of baking sustainability to the financial system in the platform. The proposed expansion of Green Bonds is discussed below under another criterion. No points are therefore awarded.   

Green Party. 0. There are limited mentions to baking sustainability into the financial system in the platform. The promise to improve Investor State Dispute Settlements would not have a material impact on baking sustainability into the financial system nor does it meet the criterion for this  element. No points are therefore awarded. 

Liberal Party. 0.5. The Liberal's 2019 budget (p. 330) includes explicit support for the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures voluntary international disclosure standards; as of June 2019 Canada is only the 5th country in the world to do so. This support is elaborated on in the 2019 budget with some useful but vague language about helping raise awareness amongst Canadian firms about the TCFD standards, and a commitment to encourage Crown corporations to adopt them "as appropriate." Altogether, this signals that the Liberal party generally thinks the TCFD recommendations are a good idea and helps to define - if vaguely - an early Canadian approach towards adoption. We think a more concrete approach to encouraging widespread adoption needs to be articulated, but assign a half point for this progress. A full point on this criteria would require action on the other elements described above. 

NDP. 0.5. The NDP proposal for a Climate Bank somewhat, indirectly responds to this criteria to help bake sustainability into the financial system. We therefore award a half point.

Policies

Green Party

  • Renegotiate Canada’s trade and investment agreements to remove the Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) provisions that give foreign corporations extraordinary powers to challenge the laws and policies of democratically elected governments, and include binding labour, health, safety and environmental standards. (p. 33). 

NDP

Establish a new Canadian Climate Bank, which will be capitalized with $3 billion in federal funds. This bank would mandated to invest in clean power, cleantech, grid interconnections, smart-grids and low carbon manufacturing. (p.  16)

 

Criteria 9: Do the platforms include action to give all Canadians options to invest?

 

Including by (a) expanding Canada’s green fixed income market (b) promoting sustainable investment as ‘business as usual’ within Canada’s asset management community 


Summary

Only the Conservative Party mentions the use of diversifying financial instruments to help catalyze sustainable finance. 

Scoring

Conservative Party. 0.5. Green bonds are proposed to help finance sustainable solutions. A half point is awarded.  

Green Party. 0. No mention of giving Canadians options to invest in green finance.

Liberal Party. 0. No mention of giving Canadians options to invest in green finance.

NDP. 0. No mention of giving Canadians options to invest in green finance.

Policies

Conservative Party

 

Criteria 10: Do the platforms include action to support massive adoption of existing technology by private businesses?


Including any action that reduces cost or other barriers to the internal deployment of clean technology, with a particular emphasis on non-industrial businesses (industrial businesses are covered elsewhere in this framework) 


Summary

All parties propose some mix of carbon pricing, regulatory policies and incentives to increase the uptake of clean technology. In this criterion we look for other complementary measures to reinforce the policy packages to drive technology deployment in business. Only the Liberal Party platform includes measures that could be considered partially responsive to this criteria: including (a) a commitment to explore measures to support the conversion of business fleets, such as those used by taxi and courier companies to zero-emissions vehicles, (b) a clean technology tax cut that, while focused on supporting the development and manufacture of Canadian clean tech (covered in the next criteria), could also have downstream impacts on technology deployment through the increased availability of domestically-sourced options and (c) a clean fuels policy that includes commercial support  for the deployment of clean fuels.

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. There is no clear mention of complementary policies to incent the massive adoption of existing technology, particularly by non-industrial businesses.

Green Party: 0. There is no clear mention of complementary policies to incent the massive adoption of existing technology, particularly by non-industrial businesses.

Liberal Party: 0.5. Three partially responsive and complementary policies are mentioned to help convert business fleets, incent clean technology development - and potentially deployment - through tax breaks, and commercial support for clean fuels. A half point is therefore awarded.

NDP: 0. There is no clear mention of complementary policies to incent the massive adoption of existing technology, particularly by non-industrial businesses.

Policies

Liberal Party

  • Clean technology tax cut. Small clean tech companies would see their taxes reduced to 4.5 per cent from 9 per cent, while larger businesses would see their taxes fall to 7.5 per cent from 15 per cent.
  • To help producers get the technology and infrastructure they need to scale up and create more good jobs, we will move forward with a new technology and commercial support fund, administered through Western Economic Diversification. This fund will help connect farmers, researchers, agribusinesses, and energy companies, and help give producers an advantage in the clean economy.

 

Criteria 11: Do the platforms include action to support R&D and export of Canadian technology and expertise?


Including the early-stage innovation,development, commercialization, and export of Canadian clean economy solutions, both goods and services


Summary

The Conservative Party platform is heavily weighted to rely on green technology and innovation to drive down the costs of low emitting technology.  The NDP platform also discusses several innovation programs including expanding Sustainable Development Technology Canada’s investment portfolio. Innovation or research and development is not mentioned in the Liberal Party platform. The Green Party mentions some targeted research and innovation measures.

Scoring

Conservative Party: 1. The platform is heavily focused on using research and development to help with the low carbon transition. But without broad-based signals like carbon pricing, the innovation signal of these targeted programs likely will be weak. Still, a full point is awarded given the planform’s extensive focus on R&D.  

Green Party: 0.5. There is vague reference to innovation and R&D.  A half point is awarded given the lack of specific measures.  

Liberal Party: 0.5.  The platform includes a clean technology tax cut and a clean fuels fund administered by Western Economic Diversification Canada, both of which will incent research, development, and deployment of clean technology.  

NDP: 0.5. The platform identifies a series of broad-based measures to help incent innovation and R&D in low carbon technologies. Full points are not awarded given the vagaries in the platform on supporting innovation and R&D. 

Specific policies

Conservative Party

  • The Green Investment Standards, the Green Patent Credit, and the Green Technology and Innovation Fund have the potential to grow the capital available to new cleantech solutions companies in Canada, and could grow the market for Canadian-made emissions-reducing solutions (pp. 20 and 24). 
  • The proposed Go-to Green Hub has the potential to help connect innovators and researchers (p.  26) spurring innovation and investment.
  • Green Technology and Innovation Fund by investing $250 million into private sector managed fund that will invest in a mix of early-stage to late-stage development technologies. This fund would require applicants to secure $4 for every $1 of government investment. After this fund is established and operational, the government will sell this investment off in order to recover “money for taxpayers” (p.  24). 

NDP

  • Committed to position Canada as “a global leader in emerging sectors,” by establishing “targeted centres of excellence” to “harness the power of Canadian research and development.” (p.  11) 
  • Expand the funding to cleantech companies available through Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC). (p.  11)
  • Take a strategic, sector-specific approach that invests in innovation and R&D here at home – and we’ll put a particular focus on developing the technologies the world will need to thrive in a low-carbon future (p. 39). 
  • “$1.5 billion to support workers, industries, research, and innovation” (Power to Change, p. 20). 

Green Party

  • Support the transition of the mining sector to an innovation hub for greener technologies, commercialized and attractive to export markets, including $40 million for the proposed Sudbury-based mining innovation cluster (p. 42). 
  • Increased funds would be dedicated to research and the expansion of tree nurseries in support of these objectives (p. 42). 

Liberal Party

  • “Lower Taxes For Clean Tech Businesses”. Cut corporate taxes in half for businesses that develop technologies or manufacture products that have zero emissions (p. 20). 
  • Clean fuels technology and commercial support fund administered by Western Economic Diversification Canada (p. 24).

 

Criteria 12: Do the platforms include action to create a clean economy education and skills strategy?


Including an overarching transition workforce needs study, retraining/skills upgrades for existing industrial workers, an education and training strategy to foster a steady stream of new workers from Canada, and skilled labour immigration strategies


Summary

All parties except the Conservative Party make extensive reference to helping workforces that may be impacted by dislocations associated with the transition to a low carbon economy. Programs seek to help workers adversely impacted as fossil fuel demand falls while bolstering training to update the skills needed in building out a low carbon economy.

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. There is no mention of skills development or transitioning workers adversely impacted by the transition to a low carbon economy.

Green Party: 1. The Green Party platform takes a comprehensive view to transitioning workers adversely impacted by the transition to a low carbon economy as well as proposing specific skills programs. A full point is awarded.

Liberal Party: 1. The platform identifies the development of a Just Transition Act which presumably would be an accountability framework to ensure that the government implements transitional programs to help adversely impacted workers. There is also mention of the number of skills training programs to help with the low carbon transition. A full point is awarded.

NDP: 1. The platform identifies a broad number of commitments to ensure that Canadian workers or regions are not left behind. This includes overarching principles as well as specific programs implemented through employment insurance and a new Workers Development and Opportunities Fund. A full point is awarded.

Policies

NDP

  • Commits to not “leave Canadian workers or regions behind” by expanding access to training and retraining to meet the demands of the new job market. (pp. 10-11)
  • Will make it easier to qualify for employment-insurance (EI) and would offer the ability to receive EI while attending school, workers can qualify for this program while employed. (p.  10)
  • The worker transition program includes a number of the recommendations set out by the Task Force on Just Transition for Canadian Coal Power Workers and Communities acknowledging that workers across Canada will be displaced as part of Canada’s transition to a low-carbon economy. (p.  11).
  • New Workers Development and Opportunities Fund to expand training options beyond people who qualify for EI. This fund will be provincially directed, with dedicated support for marginalized workers, those in transitioning sectors and for efforts to improve literacy and essential skills (p.29).

Liberal Party

  • Just Transition Act.  Pass legislation to help businesses and workers make the transition to clean energy. 
  • Invest $100 million in skills training, to ensure there are enough qualified workers to keep up with energy audits, retrofits, and net-zero home construction (p. 33)
  • Ensure energy workers and communities can shape their own futures by introducing a Just Transition Act, giving workers access to the training, support, and new opportunities needed to succeed in the clean economy (p.29). 
  • “To help workers transition to a new job following the loss of long-term work, we will move forward with a Career Insurance Benefit” (p. 11).

Green Party

 

Criteria 13: Do the platforms include action to push the hiring of Canadian talent first?


Specifically for good-paying clean economy jobs, leveraging the new supply of skilled workers with procurement and training requirements for public works, and requirements and/or incentives for private works


Summary

The Green Party and NDP have explicit policies to create local jobs in Canadian communities. These policies focus on producing a higher share of Canada’s fossil fuel use at home, where imported fossil fuels are replaced by Canadian sources and then ultimately phased out. The Liberal Party mentions jobs in a few places but makes no reference to hiring of Canadian talent first. 

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0 The platform does not explicitly mention a push for “Canadian talent first” as the country transitions to a low carbon economy.

Green Party: 0.5. The platform makes numerous references to ensuring Canadian talent is hired first, but specific policies are vague. Half a point is awarded due to a lack of specific policies to hire Canadian talent first.

Liberal Party: 0. The platform does not explicitly mention a push for “Canadian talent first” as the country transitions to a low carbon economy.

NDP: 0.5. The platform identifies a Low Carbon Industrial Strategy to help ensure that jobs are kept within Canada, prioritizes the development of domestic oil and gas to “keep jobs at home,” and will increase purchase incentives for Canadian-made zero-emission vehicles.

Policies

Liberal Party

  • To help producers get the technology and infrastructure they need to scale up and create more good jobs, we will move forward with a new technology and commercial support fund, administered through Western Economic Diversification. This fund will help connect farmers, researchers, agribusinesses, and energy companies, and help give producers an advantage in the clean economy.

Green Party

  • Establish a National Community Benefit Strategy that leverages public procurement to maximize opportunities for social hiring and procurement, including Indigenous procurement, youth employment and demand-driven skills development programs.
  • Funding and support for local transition centres, pathways to early retirement, infrastructure projects to create employment, and the creation of a publicly available labour market tool meant to connect workers with employers (p. 29). 

NDP

  • The proposed Low Carbon Industrial Strategy proposes to create opportunities across Canada and in indigenous communities. It will contain a fund that industrial operators can apply to for support investments in lowering emissions in exchange for these operators “keeping jobs here”. (p.  11).
  • A prioritization of developing domestic oil and gas upgrading and refining, creating jobs here in Canada, “instead of shipping our raw resources and jobs to other countries”. (p.  11)
  • Climate Bank will also support made-in -Canada manufacturing of renewable energy components and technologies, and help scale up Canada’s clean energy industry (p. 53). 
  • Increase consumer incentives for zero-emissions vehicles to $15,000 from $5,000, but only for vehicles made in Canada.

Conservative Party

  • No policies identified. 

Criteria 14: Do the platforms include action to help towns and cities make transition plans?


Which here refers to all manner of sustainable planning exercises to help combat sprawl, transition energy, transportation, and building systems to zero-emission, and the development of local economic diversification plans (adaptation and forest planning support are captured in other criteria).


Summary

While all the parties have a heavy emphasis on community, there is limited mention of supporting planning processes to expand the capacity of local governments to transition to a low carbon future. The Green Party focuses on supporting planning processes in impacted natural resource communities as fossil fuel demand shifts but lacks a broader focus on transition plans for urban communities, for example.

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. The platform does not mention of supporting community transition plans.

Green Party: 0.5. The platform mentions a range of support for community transition plans. A full point is not awarded given the limited focus on natural resource communities and not, for example, in urban areas.

Liberal Party: 0. The platform does not mention of supporting community transition plans.

NDP: 0. The platform does not mention of supporting community transition plans.

 

Criteria 15: Do the platforms include action to advance 100% clean power?


Which here specifically refers to 100% clean electricity generation (not including nuclear because not renewable). The actual electrification of fossil fuel-powered systems is captured in other criteria


Summary

The party platforms all commit to improving the transmission of clean electricity throughout Canada, but it should be noted that these efforts are already well underway. The NDP and the Green Party specifically commit to 100% electricity from renewable sources, with the Green Party targeting 2030 and the NDP targeting 2050. All the parties except the conservatives also commit to greening government operations with clean electricity and helping northern and remote communities get off diesel generation. The Liberal Party commit to continuing their carbon pricing for the electricity sector in advance of the ban on coal generation by 2030. All the parties mention the inclusion of the electricity sector under their large emitter carbon pricing programs. 

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. There is little detail on programs to help deploy more renewable or clean power.  The platform does commit to improving the transmission of power between regions in the country. This includes a national energy corridor, which would support electricity transmission but also oil and gas. While the continuation of the large emitter carbon pricing would likely continue to cover electricity generators, no points are awarded given the platform at best looks like a continuation of current policy.        

Green Party: 1. Stipulates a 100% renewable target by 2030. Advocates the use of carbon pricing and shifting fossil fuel subsidies to incent clean energy. Grid modernization and provincial interties are also a priority. There are specific proposals to redirect fossil fuel subsidies for clean power, and to modernize and expand the electricity grid to help decarbonize fossil dependent regions. Given the range of proposed policy, full points are awarded despite the technical challenge of reaching 100% renewable generation by 2030.

Liberal Party: 1. Fossil fuel based electricity generation is covered under large emitter carbon pricing as well as a coal fired power generation ban by 2030. There is a proposal to use Trans Mountain pipeline profits to incent more clean power in communities, and pledges to invest in clean power generation and transmission. Full points are awarded given the feasibility of the platform to continue and accelerate current efforts to phase-out fossil generation.      

NDP: 0.5. A 100% renewable target by 2050 is specified but policy measures are not specified to help with attaining the target (beyond carbon pricing). A Clean Communities Fund is proposed to help local communities generate renewable power. Full points are not awarded given the lack of specific proposals and the uncertainty associated with achieving 100% renewable power by 2030.   

Policies 

NDP  

  • Support provinces who want to connect their power grids across the country, plus smart grid technologies.
  • Set a target to power Canada with net carbon-free electricity by 2030 and move to 100 per cent non-emitting electricity by 2050. (page 16).
  • Clean Communities Fund to support investments in community-owned and operated clean energy projects (page 16). 
  • Will partner with Indigenous and northern communities to move off diesel with renewable micro-grids (page 16). 
  • Climate Bank will also support made-in -Canada manufacturing of renewable energy components and technologies, and help scale up Canada’s clean energy industry. (p. 53). 

Green Party

  • Modernizing and Greening the grid; updating Canada’s grid infrastructure to remove fossil fuel generation, better integrate renewables, and create east-west interties will create thousands of jobs for skilled tradespeople (MP - p.  3).
  • 100 per cent of Canada’s electricity come from renewable sources by 2030.
  • Modernizing the electricity grid across the country, making it possible to distribute renewable energy from one province to province.
  • Shift fossil fuel budget expenditures to clean energy and renewable sources.  
  • Will collaborate with provinces, territories, Indigenous Peoples and the public to develop a Pan-Canadian Energy Strategy that gets us to a carbon-free energy system by 2050 (page 42).
  • Work with provincial governments to determine which orphaned oil and gas wells are geologically suited to produce geothermal energy.

Liberal Party

  • Fossil fuel electricity covered under the large emitter carbon price program (OBPS), coal ban continued to 2030.  (continuation of current measures). 
  • New investments in clean power: “Help bring clean and affordable power to more communities, we will move forward with new clean electricity generation and transmission systems, in partnership with the provinces, territories and others” (p.33).
  • Invest in clean energy projects that will power our homes, businesses, and communities for generations to come (p. 31). 
  • Require federal buildings to be powered completely by clean electricity by 2022. Require federal buildings to be powered completely by clean electricity by 2022, accelerating, by three years, our previous commitment to hit this goal by 2025. To support growth in the clean energy sector, where possible, we will work to source that power from new clean energy products.

Conservative Party

  • Greening the grid measures but expanded oil and gas corridors. “Will build a national energy corridor that will “facilitate(s) the transmission of clean electricity” (p.  29).

 

Criteria 16: Do the platforms include action to advance clean industry?


Including the clean electrification of industrial energy/power systems, the capture of industrial non-energy emissions such as methane leakage from oil & gas, and the transition away from oil and non-renewable gas production entirely: in line with [hopefully] aggressive reductions in domestic and global demand


Summary

Both the Green Party and the NDP platforms propose to increase the carbon payments made by trade exposed and emission intensive industries such as cement, steel, chemicals and oil production. While more stringent carbon costs would reduce emissions from Canadian industry, the risk of emission leakage, where Canadian production is substituted for higher emitting production from other jurisdictions, is highly possible. 

The Green Party proposal to halt the development of oil and gas in Canada will reduce emissions from production in Canada, but such a transition in advance of reducing end-use demand in vehicles and houses would result in shifting production to other jurisdictions where GHGs would rise. The net impact on global GHGs by phasing out Canadian production would be diminished. At the same time, the Green Party proposes to ban foreign oil imports and to emphasize investment in domestic oil sands upgrading, a source of significant GHGs.  

Liberal plans include tax incentives for cleantech companies, developing regulations for controlling methane in oil and gas and providing specific funding programs to help industry electrify (and reduce fossil fuel use and GHGs). The current carbon pricing system addresses concerns about emissions leakage and competitiveness impacts on large emission intensive Canadian exporters.

The Conservative Party plans for the continuation of the large emitter program for trade exposed and emission intensive industry. Some green construction options are identified, but these would have a very limited impact on total GHG emissions (less than 1 Mt). Promoting Canadian clean exports might help industry, but there are no specifics on how this would occur.

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. The platform calls for a continuation of the large emitter program, which will incent emission reductions. However, in the absence of additional measures, there would likely be no change in the level of GHGs from industry relative to current policy. Zero points are awarded given the proposal likely does not improve or strengthen current policy.  

Green Party: 0.5. Setting binding emission limits for industry will advance emission reductions in industry. “Turning off the tap” of oil imports would cause disruption domestically for producers and consumers. The short-term feasibility of such a plan is questionable given Canada’s current dependence on fossil fuels and the limited current penetration of low emitting alternatives. An apparent commitment to increase investment in oil sands upgrading to substitute for imported oil and other petroleum products would increase domestic GHGs. A full point is not awarded given that banning fossil fuel imports is not feasible in the short to medium terms. In the longer-term, where domestic oil and gas production replaces imports, GHGs would not necessarily decline. 

Liberal Party: 1. A strengthening of current policy will continue to result in emission reductions. Specific policies are targeted at methane capture and industrial electrification, separating the Liberal Party platform from the other platforms. Full points are awarded given the comprehensiveness of the policy package with the clean technology tax breaks being a defining proposal.  

NDP: 0.5. The proposed Canadian Climate Bank is aimed at incenting clean technologies. There are limited concrete policies to push industry to electrify or to reduce GHGs. Strengthening methane standards for oil and gas are mentioned.  By proposing to increase the carbon pricing level on trade exposed and emission intensive industries, there are GHG leakage risks, where Canadian production shifts to countries that are not yet pricing carbon. A half point is awarded for the Climate Bank and strengthened methane regulations, but a lack of additional policies negates a full point score.    

Policies 

Liberal Party

  • Clean technology tax cut. Small clean tech companies would see their taxes reduced to 4.5 per cent from 9 per cent, while larger businesses would see their taxes fall to 7.5 per cent from 15 per cent.
  • Strengthen methane regulations for oil and gas. 
  • Explore measures to support the conversion of business fleets, such as those used by taxi and courier companies, and industrial vehicles, like mining truck (p.33). 
  • We will move forward with a new $5-billion Clean Power Fund. This fund will help support the electrification of Canadian industries, including our resource and manufacturing sectors, and make Canada home to the cleanest mills, mines, and factories in the world. (p33). 
  • To help producers get the technology and infrastructure they need to scale up and create more good jobs, we will move forward with a new technology and commercial support fund, administered through Western Economic Diversification. This fund will help connect farmers, researchers, agribusinesses, and energy companies, and help give producers an advantage in the clean economy.

Green Party

  • Set legal emissions limits for industries that decline over time, with penalties for exceeding those limits. 
  • Halt all new fossil fuel development projects including natural gas, cancel proposed pipelines
  • Implement national standards for reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizers in crop agriculture
  • Mandated switch to biodiesel would help create investment and jobs in Canada’s alternative fuels industry (MP - p.  4).  
  • Work with provincial governments to determine which orphaned oil and gas wells are geologically suited to produce geothermal energy
  • Maximize emissions reductions in all transportation through the use of sustainably produced biofuels, made from waste wood by-products and used vegetable oils, where electric and fuel cells not viable, as is the case for fishing, mining and forestry equipment (p. 23).
  • Banning all imports of foreign oil
  • As fossil fuel use declines, use only Canadian fossil fuels and allow investment in upgraders to turn Canadian solid bitumen into gas, diesel, propane and other products for the Canadian market, providing jobs in Alberta. By 2050, shift all Canadian bitumen from fuel to feedstock for the petrochemical industry. (Mission Possible, p. 4). 

Conservative Party

  • Continuation of carbon pricing for industry, but unclear on the specifics. 
  • Green Party construction options, pushing for low carbon cement. 
  • Export “Canadian Clean products” to increase the production of more Canadian goods that are made using lower-carbon processes (p.  53). Launch “Canadian Clean Brand”.   

NDP

  • Federal government procurement policies to drive low-carbon technology adoption. (p.  9)
  • Committed to carbon pricing, but will roll back “the breaks…given to big polluters”, indicating that they would eliminate or lower the GHG emissions limit threshold set out by the Output-Based Pricing System (OBPS) (p. 9).
  • “Work with the provinces and territories to make Canada an innovation leader on methane reduction in such areas as real-time monitoring and leakage detection, ensuring that provincial methane regulations are genuinely equivalent with federal regulations (Action Plan p. 9)

 

Criteria 17: Do the platforms include action to advance clean transportation?


Including the electrification of transportation (whether by battery or hydrogen storage; not including synthetic fuels here), and the expansion of both active transportation and public transportation infrastructure


Summary

All the parties except for the Conservative Party place a heavy emphasis on electrifying the transportation sector. The Green Party and the NDP seek to ban internal combustion engines in passenger vehicles by 2030 in the case of the Green Party or 2040 in the case of the NDP. The Liberal Party do not mention a ban, and instead would continue with their vehicle efficiency standards and implementation of the Clean Fuel Standard, both of which would deliver significant reductions to 2030 and beyond, for example the vehicle efficiency standards are improving fuel economy over 4% a year making the average emission performance of new passenger vehicle sold in 2025 to be at plug-in hybrid levels.  

The NDP and Green Party do not mention a continuation of the Clean Fuel Standard.

The Liberal Party would also expand their current consumer subsidy for new vehicles while adding an incentive for the purchase of used zero emission vehicles. All the parties except the Conservative Party commit to expanding the network of charging stations within the country.

Greening government operations with electrified vehicles is a priority in all the platforms. All the parties except the Conservative Party would make major investments in public transit infrastructure including the electrification of municipal fleets such as buses. All the parties except the Conservative Party also focus on improving and/or electrifying rail transportation to reduce emissions from the transportation sector. 

Uniquely, the Green Party proposes to ban oil imports into Canada. However, given the long life of internal combustion vehicles, such a move would only result rising demand for domestically produced petroleum products. The result would not necessarily be a reduction in global emissions.   

The Conservative Party plan to remove the Clean Fuel Standard would result in a significant increase in Canadian emissions in the order of 30 Mt. This is equivalent to about half of the current gap to the 2030 target projected by Environment and Climate Change Canada.  

Scoring

Conservative Party. -0.5. The removal of the Clean Fuel Standard would increase emissions while the proposed clean transportation measures would have little or no impact on GHG’s.  As a result, the scoring is -0.5 given that the platform would raise transport GHGs.   

Green Party. 0.5. A comprehensive policy package is presented, and when the proposed carbon price is added to the various bans, incentives and transit funding, the package could deliver significant reductions to 2030 and beyond. However, the feasibility of some of the measures is questionable. Notably banning fossil fuel imports does not seem feasible in the absence of the policy to retire the fleet of internal combustion engines operating in the country. Substituting imported petroleum products through investing in more oil sands upgrading or petroleum refining would not necessarily result in global emissions falling. A commitment to more biofuels could contribute to GHG reductions.  We award a full point for the comprehensive policy package, but we deduct a half point due to the infeasibility of the apparent ban on petroleum imports, the implied ramp up in domestic refining capacity, and questionable impact on global GHGs. 

Liberal Party. 0.5. A comprehensive policy packages is provided including a mix of carbon pricing, regulations and incentives. The Clean Fuel Standard is a major GHG reducing policy across all forms of transportation. Also included are specific measures and federal funding to support electrifying buses and rail systems by 2023 and to improve low carbon public transit infrastructure. A half point is awarded given the feasibility of the policy package, the Clean Fuel Standard and a focus on transit and infrastructure spending.  

NDP. 0.5. The NDP policy package looks somewhat limited in the scope by primarily targeting passenger vehicles and transit.  Absent is an effort to reduce the GHG intensity of fuels. The carbon tax would result in emission reductions as would some of the policies such as removing the GST on new electric vehicle purchases. A focus on electrifying transit would also reduce GHGs.  A full point is not awarded given the limited focus on fuels and concrete proposals to focused on all forms of transport, like heavy duty trucks.  

Policies 

Liberal Party

  • Clean fuel standard to be implemented, reviewed and updated. 
  • Accelerated adoption of electric vehicles. This will provide a 10 per cent rebate on a used zero-emission vehicle up to a maximum value of $2,000 (p. 33). 
  • Make buying a used zero-emission vehicle more affordable, we will expand the incentive that already exists for buying new zero-emission cars.
  • More investments in public transit infrastructure. An additional $3 billion more per year in stable, predictable funding for our cities’ transit needs, on top of transfers through the federal Gas Tax Fund. 
  • We will require that new federal investments in public transit are used to support zero-emission buses and rail systems starting in 2023 (p.33)
  • We will also move forward with a new fund to help more school boards and municipalities purchase 5,000 zero-emissions school and transit buses over the next five years (p.33)
  • Install up to 5,000 charging stations along the Trans Canada Highway and other major road networks, and in Canada’s urban and rural areas. Northern communities, as well as apartments and condominiums, will also be included – connecting people and communities from coast to coast to coast (p. 33). 
  • To help make Canada’s ports some of the world’s cleanest in the world, we will support efforts that convert ships from heavy oil and diesel, such as the ferries serving Canada’s coastal communities. (p 34). 

NDP

  • Calls for the development of a national cycling strategy, the full electrification of transit and municipal fleets by 2030, fare-free transit for all, and significant zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) incentives. (pp. 14-15)
  • Expand public transit in communities across Canada through federal transit funding flows an emphasis on low-carbon transit projects. 
  • Modernize and expand public transit in communities across Canada, including low cost loans (p.  14).
  • Creation of high-frequency rail along the Quebec-Windsor corridor in order to offer lower-emissions transportation options. (P.  14)
  • Provide low-cost financing to local governments in support of the electrification of transit and other municipal fleets by 2030.
  • Move the vehicle fleets of the federal government to electric by 2025.
  • Help homeowners cover the cost of installing a plug-in charger.
  • Expand charging networks for ZEVs across the country
  • Make 100 per cent of all new automotive sales zero-emission vehicles by 2040.
    Waive GST on ZEVs (p. 14). 
  • Increase consumer incentives for zero-emissions vehicles to $15,000 from $5,000, but only for vehicles made in Canada.

Green Party

Conservative Party

Criteria 18: Do the platforms include action to advance zero-emission homes and buildings?


Emphasizing the electrification of heating systems and energy efficiency, with a nod to the limited capacity of renewable natural gas to play a niche role


Summary

A major focus of all the party platforms is addressing emissions from residential housing. All the party platforms propose some form of incentive for homeowners to accelerate home retrofits. The Green Party provide the most comprehensive coverage for the retrofits extending the retrofit program to commercial and institutional buildings. In all platforms, net zero building codes would be strengthened to accelerate the deployment of zero emitting new homes in the country. With carbon pricing in all the platforms except the Conservative Party platform, these incentive programs would amplify the carbon price signal. The Liberal Party go one step further and propose strengthening energy efficiency standards for equipment used in households. As well, the Liberal Party Clean Fuel Standard would drive additional GHG reductions from all buildings including residential, commercial and institutional.

Scoring

Conservative Party: -0.5. The use of a subsidy program has been shown to be expensive and of limited effectiveness. At the same time, removing the Clean Fuel Standard and the carbon price would offset the reduction in GHGs from the subsidy program. The proposal would result in an increase in net GHGs and therefore a -0.5 is awarded.   

Green Party: 0.5. A comprehensive policy package is provided using a mix of carbon pricing, building codes and incentives for residential, institutional and commercial buildings.  A half point is awarded give the focus on retrofitting buildings but no focus on decarbonizing fuel with substitutes such as renewable natural gas. 

Liberal Party: 1. A comprehensive policy package is provided with a mix of carbon pricing, building codes and incentives. The addition of the Clean Fuel Standard with significant emission reduction potential to decarbonizing the fuel used in all manner of buildings differentiates the Liberal Party policy from the other parties. A full point is awarded due to the proposed comprehensive buildings proposal plus the addition of the Clean Fuel Standard.  

NDP: 0.5. The NDP policy is the most ambitious in terms of its impact on residential housing. Adopting a net zero building code in conjunction with carbon tax would reduce emissions from entire building sector. However, the platform’s exclusive focus on the housing sector misses important opportunities in institutional and commercial buildings. A half point is awarded for its limited coverage of buildings. 

Policies

Liberal Party

  • Net-Zero Homes Grant.  Accelerate home retrofits. Retrofit 1.5 million homes. Interest-free loan of up to $40,000 for homeowners and landlords who want to make their homes more energy efficient
  • Net zero building codes. 
  • Free energy audits for homeowners and landlords (p. 32). 
  • $100 million competition to help GHG reductions in large office towers and other commercial buildings (p. 33).
  • Help people buy newly built homes that are certified zero-emissions by giving them a Net Zero Homes Grant of up to $5,000 (p. 32). 
  • Energy Star certification mandatory for all new home appliances starting in 2022 (p. 33).

NDP

  • Energy efficient retrofits would be completed on all homes by 2050. Set a target to retrofit all housing stock in Canada by 2050, by providing low-interest loans repayable through energy savings
  • Improve the National Building Code to ensure that by 2030, every new building built in Canada is net-zero energy ready (p.  12).
  • Energy efficiency and sustainable building practices will be at the core of our national housing strategy.
  • Promises to save Canadians $900 per year on home energy costs through upgrades.

Green Party

  • Launch a massive energy efficiency retrofit of residential, commercial and institutional buildings.
  • Finance building retrofit programs using grants, zero-interest loans and repayment programs based on energy/cost savings.
  • Change the national building code to require new construction to meet net-zero emission standards by 2030 and work with the provinces to enact it.

Conservative Party

  • Green Home Retrofit Code. Provide eligible households a 20 per cent refundable tax credit for green improvements to their homes of between $1,000 and $20,000 as part of a two-year program.
  • Net-Zero Ready Building Standard

 

Criteria 19: Do the platforms include action to advance smart land use and zero waste?


Including landfill gas capture, regional forest/agricultural/ecosystem carbon emissions and sequestration, and action to combat urban sprawl (this last element currently overlaps somewhat with the “Help towns and cities make transition plans” criteria)


Summary

Both the Liberal Party and the Green Party advocate for nature-based solutions to help reduce GHG emissions. The Liberal Party platform promises to plant 2 billion trees at a cost of $3 billion. The Green Party platform advocates for planting 10 billion trees but also other complementary measures such as a National Forest Strategy and effort to improve vegetation and carbon sequestration in buffer zones along waterways. The NDP and Conservative Party platforms are not specific on measures to help reduce emissions from the land sector. The NDP and the Green Party have comprehensive statements on improving waste management. All parties except the Conservative Party propose banning single use plastics. 

Scoring 

Conservative Party: 0. The Conservative Party does not mention specific policies but instead advocates that it will “look for ways” to improve carbon sequestration the land-use sector. No point is awarded given the lack of specific measures proposed.  

Green Party: 1. A comprehensive set of measures are proposed that would reduce emissions including massive tree planting and improving watershed management to help with water quality and to sequester GHGs. A full point is awarded given the comprehensive policy package and the promise to conduct massive tree planting.  

Liberal Party: 1. Committing $3 billion to nature based/land-use solutions including a promise to plant 2 billion trees, which has been assessed by a University of Ottawa ecologist as “a pretty reasonable contribution to the total global requirement to address the huge pool of carbon that we’ve dumped in the atmosphere;” as such, for the purposes of assigning points we treat the Green Party’s 10 billion trees and the Liberal Party’s 2 billion trees similarly. These measures, combined with the Liberal commitment to ban single use plastics lead us to award a full point; however, it should be noted there are limited complementary waste management policies mentioned.

NDP: 0.5. While directing a new Climate Back to work with municipalities to reduce their waste would contribute to some GHG reductions, the absence of a concrete policy to reduce emissions from the land-use sector is a glaring weakness. Half a point is therefore awarded.  

Scoring 

Liberal Party

  • A ban on single use plastics is clearly a priority.  

Green Party

NDP

  • The Canadian Climate Bank would be mandated to support municipalities to adapt their waste management programs to lower landfill methane emissions. (pp. 18-19).
  • Will continue the work with Canadian farmers to promote land-management techniques and methods to increase carbon sequestration and reduce GHG emissions (P.  19)
  • A ban on single use plastics. 

Conservative Party

  • Will “look for ways to support their (farmers) continued development of technology and land-use practices that are good for our environment. We will work with them to increase the efficiency of fertilizers and land-use methods, maximize the potential of agricultural land to sequester carbon, and ensure that best practices keep pace with the most recent advancements in technology and practice.” (P.  27) 

 

Criteria 20: Do the platforms include action to reduce hazards and disaster risks?


Including from rapid-onset climate-related events (e.g. floods, wildfires and other events), aligning action with the four components of emergency management: prevention, preparedness, response and recovery (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)


Summary

The Green Party proposal to reduce the risks of dangerous climate change is broad in scope with a focus on vulnerable sectors including forests, water systems and farms. Program detail is lacking, however.  The NDP is surprisingly light on adaptation measures that will reduce risk but does commit invest heavily in building resilience infrastructure. The Liberal Party commits to a large investment in the federal government’s Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund, which is focused on reducing the risks associated with climate hazards such as extreme weather. It also proposes a range of other policies to reduce climate risk from forest fires and floods. The Conservative Party’s focuses on using natural infrastructure to reduce the risks of dangerous change.  

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0.5. The platform is light on reducing the risks associated with the adverse impacts of climate change. A half point is awarded given the focus on the use of natural infrastructure to help reduce the risks of dangerous climate change while delivering other co-benefits like improved water quality and carbon sequestration. 

Green Party: 1. The platform includes targeted measures to help with climate impacts on forests, infrastructure and of farming. Flood mitigation and planning is also prioritized as is natural infrastructure. We therefore award a full point.

Liberal Party: 1. The platform provides a comprehensive package of financial assistance to reduce risk, including help relocating households in flood-prone areas and an additional $1 billion for the Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund, which is a national merit-based program to support large-scale infrastructure projects to help communities better manage the risks of disasters triggered by natural hazards. We therefore award a full point.

NDP: 1. The $2.5 billion committed the federal Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund is a significant investment. We therefore award a full point. 

Policies

Conservative Party

  • Pursue natural infrastructure projects that leverage the resilience of our natural landscapes (p. 31). 

Liberal Party

Green Party

  • “Using the existing Green Infrastructure Fund, launch a national program to restore natural buffer zones along waterways, and carbon sinks through ecologically sound tree-planting and soil re-building” (p. 24). 
  • Buy water bombers for forest fire preparedness. 
  • Forest management and fire breaks to be improved (p. 24).  
  • Restore the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation measures for adaptation to drought conditions (p. 39). 
  • Restructure Canada’s Business Risk Management Programs to help farmers cope with climate risk, with the focus on disaster assistance (p. 39).
  • Invest significant resources in adaptation measures to protect Canadian resource sectors such as agriculture, fishing and forestry from the ravages of climate change. 

NDP

 

Criteria 21: Do the platforms include action to protect health and wellbeing?


By focusing on the key determinants of health as they relate to climate change impacts and by increasing the resilience of people, communities, and health practitioners to a broad range of health impacts associated with climate change (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)


Summary

The Liberal Party is the only platform that identifies a specific policy to help protect wellbeing, with its employment insurance (EI) proposal to help those impacted by floods and wildfires.  

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. No specific measures are identified to help protect health and well-being.

Green Party: 0. No specific measures are identified to help protect health and well-being.

Liberal Party: 0.5. A new EI disaster assistance benefit is specifically targeted to assist those impacted by extreme weather.

NDP: 0. No specific measures are identified to help protect health and well-being.

Policies

Liberal Party

  • A new EI Disaster Assistance benefit starting in 2021. “To help people whose jobs and livelihoods are affected when disaster strikes, we will move forward with a new Employment Insurance Disaster Assistance Benefit, to be developed in consultation with experts, workers, and employers” (p. 30).

 

Criteria 22: Do the platforms include action to build resilient infrastructure?


Including Canada’s traditional, cultural, and natural infrastructure, new and existing infrastructure, critical and non-critical infrastructure, and the interdependencies of our infrastructure systems (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)


Summary

All parties recognize in their platforms the importance of building resilience into infrastructure vulnerable to climate hazards such as extreme precipitation. The Green Party provides specific proposals mapped to actionable programs to help build resilience into infrastructure decision-making. The Liberal Party and the NDP both commit to significant resources to scale a current federal program to address infrastructure vulnerability. The Conservative Party recognizes the importance of building resilient infrastructure but provides little detail on how their platform would be implemented. 

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0.5. The platform recognizes the importance of building resilience into infrastructure, but it lacks specific detail on how that would occur. A full point is therefore not awarded.

Green Party: 1. The Green Party identifies actionable measures that could build climate resilience into infrastructure decision-making. A full point is awarded. 

Liberal Party: 1. The Liberal Party commits a significant investment to build infrastructure resilience by scaling up a current program. A full point is awarded. 

NDP: 1. The NDP commits a significant investment to scale-up a current infrastructure program designed to build infrastructure resilience. A full point is awarded. 

Policies

Green Party

  • Direct the Canada Infrastructure Bank to invest in climate-proofing essential infrastructure, prioritizing upgrades to drinking water and wastewater systems to protect against flooding, droughts and contamination (p. 24). 
  • Review all infrastructure investments for adaptation to climate change. (Mission Possible, p.4). 

Liberal Party

  • Move forward with an additional $1 billion investment over the next decade in the Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund, so communities have a proactive, permanent and sustainable way to address the emerging threats of climate change (p.30).

Conservative Party

  • Incorporate a mitigation and adaptation lens to the government’s investment in infrastructure (p. 31). 
  • “Pursue natural infrastructure projects that leverage the resilience of our natural landscapes” (p. 31). 

NDP

 

Criteria 23: Do the platforms include action to support vulnerable regions and people?


With (a) a special emphasis on Canada’s northern, coastal, and remote regions and the particular vulnerability of these regions to slow onset climate change impacts e.g. permafrost thaw and coastal erosion (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience) and (b) individual households who may be particularly exposed to disasters and/or slow onset impacts. 


Summary

The Liberal Party would create a new national flood insurance program to help mitigate the impacts of climate change on flood-exposed households as well as create a new EI Disaster Assistance Benefit. The Green Party provides little direct reference to assisting vulnerable groups, but there is mention of supporting Indigenous Peoples through better forest management. Similarly, the Conservative Party mentions adaptation projects will be developed in consultation with Indigenous Peoples, but very few details are provided. The NDP provides a limited commitment to work with agricultural communities. 

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0.5. There is mention of working with Indigenous Peoples to undertake adaption projects and states they will be working directly with various levels of government. A full point is not awarded given lack of program detail.    

Green Party: 0.5. The plan mentions working with Indigenous Peoples to improve forest stewardship. A half point is awarded given a lack of additional measures to aid other vulnerable communities specifically.  

Liberal Party: 0.5. The platform provides targeted programs to aid people directly impacted by floods.  A full point is not award given the program does not specifically identify vulnerable regions.   

NDP: 0.5. The platform commits to working with agricultural communities to help adapt to climate change. A full point is not awarded given the limited scope of focus. 

Policies

Liberal Party

  • A new national flood insurance program, and help to relocate homeowners in high-risk flood zones. “More and more homes are in danger of being destroyed from an ever-increasing number of floods and wildfires. It’s expensive to adapt to a changing climate, and we are going to help” (p. 32). 
  • A new EI Disaster Assistance benefit starting in 2021. “To help people whose jobs and livelihoods are affected when disaster strikes, we will move forward with a new Employment Insurance Disaster Assistance Benefit, to be developed in consultation with experts, workers, and employers” (p. 30).

Green Party

  • Renew the abandoned process of a National Forest Strategy, with the focus on restoring ecologically sound and climate resilient forests, and restoring forests as carbon sinks, in partnership with Indigenous Peoples. (p. 24). 
  • “Invest significant resources in adaptation measures to protect Canadian resource sectors such as agriculture, fishing and forestry from the ravages of climate change” (Mission Possible p. 4) 

Conservative Party

NDP

  • “We’ll also work with the agricultural sector to help them access low carbon tools and technology, and adapt to climate-induced weather changes and other impacts of climate change, such as an increased number of pests and invasive species” (Power to Change, p. 11).

 

Criteria 24: Do the platforms include action to mobilize knowledge?


Including the respectful consideration and use of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and science to co-develop information related to climate change impacts, building the capacity of Canadians to act on this information, and mobilizing action on adaptation (as outlined by the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience)


Summary

The Green Party commits to increasing the knowledge base using vulnerability mapping of various climate risks such as floods and tornado corridors. The Liberal Party commits to conducting flood mapping in cooperation with various levels of government. Both the Conservative Party and the NDP do not mention mobilizing knowledge to help address the risks of dangerous climate change.

Scoring

Conservative Party: 0. There is no mention of measures designed to mobilize knowledge to address the risks associated climate change. No points are therefore awarded.

Green Party: 0.5. The platform identifies the need to conduct extensive vulnerability mapping to help better understand the risks and manage the impacts of dangerous climate change.  A half point is awarded given the limited scope of the commitment to mobilize knowledge. 

Liberal Party: 0.5.  The platform commits to investing in flood mapping to help reduce the risks of flooding. A full point is not awarded given the limited scope of the commitment to mobilize knowledge.

NDP: 0. There is no mention of measures designed to mobilize knowledge to address the risks associated climate change. No points are therefore awarded.

Policies

Green Party

  • Map flood plains, tornado corridors and other areas of natural vulnerability and adjust land use plans accordingly (Mission Possible, p.4). 

Liberal Party 

  • $150 million to complete flood mapping in every province and territory.  “Help Canadians better understand the risks they face when they buy a home, by working with provinces and territories to complete all flood maps in Canada” (p. 30). 

 

Climate Analysis
Platform Analysis: Climate Change
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Voters Guide 2019
fedElxn'19 Voter's Guide